Lo stress è uno dei principali fattori scatenanti di molte malattie e malesseri di tipo fisico. È curioso come un problema mentale possa ripercuotersi così tanto a livello corporeo. Gli antichi dicevano “Mens sana in corpore sano” ma oggi è ormai necessario fare una piccola rivisitazione della frase: il corpo può essere sano solo e soltanto se si sta bene anche a livello psicologico.

La psicosomatica è quella branca della medicina che pone in relazione il mondo emozionale ed affettivo con il soma, si occupa quindi di evidenziare e comprendere la stretta connessione che esiste tra le emozioni e i suoi effetti a livello corporeo.

Nello specifico, lo stress può portare all’insorgenza di quelle che sono oggi definite malattie psicosomatiche, espressioni dirette del disaggio psichico attraverso il corpo. Ansia, sofferenza, dolore ed altre emozioni forti che il soggetto non riesce a mentalizzare e percepire  trovano come unica valvola di scarico la ripercussione sul corpo, il più delle volte risultando dannose.

Già Freud aveva cominciato ad indagare questo fenomeno sin dall’inizio dei suoi lavori (si veda per esempio “Studi sull’isteria”) e questo conferma il ruolo centrale che la psicosomatica riveste per la comprensione delle patologie psichiche, perfetto esempio nel quale il corpo diventa strumento di espressione del disagio mentale.

Ai giorni nostri, la vita turbolenta che conduciamo e i ritmi sempre più incalzanti moltiplicano i fattori di stress che a loro volta si ripercuotono sul nostro organismo in forma di patologie e disfunzioni.

“Per somatizzazione si intende il processo che è alla base del disturbo psicosomatico se intendiamo la somatizzazione stessa come il meccanismo trasformativo che, a partire da specifici contenuti psichici, opera un cambiamento a livello somatico, attraverso il coinvolgimento dei sistemi endocrino e immunitario”  –  dottor Fernando Maddalena.

Quello che accade è molto semplice: pensiamo ad una emozione molto violenta, ad esempio la forte rabbia, lo stress prima di un esame o una delusione d’amore. Immaginiamo di non riuscire a sfogare ed esprimere la nostra frustrazione e quindi internalizzare  tutto. Da un lato si innesca la mentalizzazione dell’emozione, nel senso che diventiamo coscienti di trovarci in una situazione del genere; dall’altro abbiamo la sua espressione attraverso il linguaggio del corpo. La somatizzazione sarebbe, alla fine, l’espressione dei contenuti emotivi difficilmente mentalizzabili. La malattia psicosomatica si innesca quindi quando il soggetto non riesce a mentalizzare la propria condizione e questa non potendo che comunicare solo attraverso il corpo provoca lo stato patologico.

Le emozioni possono esprimersi sia con manifestazioni faccial, sia agendo sulle funzioni vegetative (battito cardiaco, respiro, sudorazione). Sentimenti eccessivamente protratti nel tempo possono quindi mantenere il sistema nervoso autonomo in uno stato di eccitazione perenne che superato il limite di sopportazione e compensazione del corpo ne provoca danni visibili sullo stesso.

Le malattie psicosomatiche possono dunque manifestarsi anche in maniera specifica. Dal punto di vista clinico sono statisticamente più colpiti il sistema cardiovascolare, il sistema respiratorio, l’apparato gastroenterico, la cute ed infine persino i sistemi endocrino ed immunitario.

I casi al momento più studiati sono quelli a livello dell’apparato gastroenterico. Possiamo distinguere i disturbi “psicogeni”, che hanno una natura prevalentemente psichica (anoressia, bulimia…) e i disturbi “psicofisiologici” che, invece, vedono la somatizzazione di contenuti psicoaffettivi a livello di zone particolari e causano nel tempo vere e proprie lesioni strutturali dei tessuti. Tra i disturbi di questo tipo troviamo ulcera gastrica, gastriti, coliti, disturbi intestinali, sindrome del colon irritabile e, persino il Morbo di Crohn. I soggetti che manifestano questi disturbi presentano una personalità particolare ed è stato confermato un collegamento reale tra sentimenti di collera e ipersecrezione gastrica o ipermotilità intestinale. Nel caso di problemi al colon, i soggetti hanno una personalità di tipo rigido, tendono a controllare eccessivamente le proprie reazioni e molte volte presentano disturbi di tipo ossessivo-compulsivo.

Per quanto riguarda invece le malattie legate al sistema endocrino e immunitario, molte di queste sembrano essere dirette conseguenze della mancata regolazione nella trasmissione cellulare sia da parte del sistema nervoso che del sistema endocrino; possiamo racchiudere in questo gruppo malattie come il Morbo di Addison, la Sindrome di Cushing e persino il diabete. Esperienze legate a sentimenti di perdita, abbandono, separazione ed isolamento incidono in modo considerevole su alcuni meccanismi di risposta anticorpale, inficiando la funzione principale del sistema immunitario e rendendo il corpo più esposto ad altre malattie.

In conclusione, una persona incapace di accedere al suo mondo emotivo potrebbe non percepire come lo stress sia collegato alla sua ulcera o alla sua gastrite! Sarebbe quindi necessarop effettuare un lavoro costante di conoscenza di se stessi così da per poter migliorare la propria salute, non solo corporea ma anche (e soprattutto) mentale.

Approfondimenti | www.fernandomaddalena.it

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