HIV – Forte il decremento fino al 2008: perdura il rischio. Nonostante le pratiche preventive l’incidenza dei nuovi casi aumenta in un particolare gruppo di persone.

Di successo è la prevenzione attuata dal Sistema Sanitario Nazionale: dopo un crescendo di incidenza dal 1991 al 2008, gli ultimi dati dell’Istituto Superiore della Sanità non solo confermano un andamento a ribasso della prevalenza dei casi, ma segnalano un andamento constante dei nuovi casi. Chi si ammala di più? Gli uomini, le donne, gli stranieri o gli omosessuali?

L’HIV rientra in un più ampio spettro di malattie denominate IST – infezioni sessualmente trasmissibili. Sebbene sia una patologia conosciuta, essa è in coda ad un numero discreto di IST fortunatamente più lievi. Secondo l’OMS difatti, ogni anno vi sono circa 498.9 milioni di nuovi casi di IST di cui circa due quarti corrisponde ad infezioni da Neisseria Gonorrea e Clamidia Trachomatis.

Dal 1991 al 2012 sono stati testati per IST circa 96 mila soggetti di cui 4.921 risultati HIV-positivi; pari ad una prevalenza del 7.3%. L’età media dei soggetti HIV-positivi è risultata essere 34 anni. I dati riguardanti esclusivamente il 2012 mostrano una prevalenza del 6.4% con un età media dei soggetti pari a 40 anni: tale dato indica ed include una diminuita incidenza dei casi di contagio, segno dell’efficacia delle tante campagne preventive attuate dal SSN.

Idati dell’ISS ci danno anche informazioni circa i gruppi maggiormente esposti. Nel corso dell’intero periodo si è riscontrata una prevalenza complessiva maggiore fra:

HIV modalità trasmissione periodo di studio completo
Distribuzione nuove diagnosi di HIV per modalità di contagio ed anno di diagnosi per l’intero periodo di studio
  • degli uomini con un 8.5% rispetto alle donne con un 4.3%;
  • tra gli italiani con un 8.2% rispetto agli stranieri con un 5,1%
  • fra i consumatori di stupefacenti per via iniettiva con un clamoroso 52.9% rispetto ad un 5,9% di chi ha dichiarato di non averne usata;
  • gli uomini che hanno avuto rapporto con altri uomini (21%) rispetto agli eterosessuali (4,1%). Bisogna notare,però che la prevalenza dei casi è aumentata all’au-mentare del numero dei partner, giungendo ad un 14,9% nei soggetti con un numero di partner maggiore di sei nei precedenti sei mesi

Analizzando nel dettaglio i dati riportati nell’ultimo notiziario Iss dell’aprile 2014, si è indicato chiaramente che nel corso dell’intero periodo di osservazione il 31% degli HIV-Positivi ha scoperto la sieropositività al momento del test. Le implicazioni sociali di tale scoperta sono facilmente deducibili.

Sebbene l’età media degli HIV-Positivi nel corso dell’intero periodo risulti essere attorno ai 31 anni, preoccupa l’aumento dei casi nei giovani compresi fra ed i 15-24 anni. Se nell’immaginario comune l’HIV è una malattia del’età adulta, l’ISS ci dice che così non è: il picco di incidenza registrato nei dati del 2012 indicano la fascia d’età compresa fra i 25-34 anni come la più a rischio.

Modalità di trasmissione ed anno di diagnosi
Numero delle nuove diagnosi di infezione da HIV, per modalità di trasmissione ed anno di diagnosi

Non è solo l’età di contagio che purtroppo preoccupa. La distribuzione percentuale dei nuovi casi di HIV dal 1991 al 2012 ci mostra chiaramente come essa sia aumentata fra gli eterosessuali e gli uomini che hanno rapporti omosessuali. In particolare, è la seconda popolazione di individui che nel periodo fra il 2010 ed il 2012 ha mostrato un netto incremento di incidenza.

HIV - Motivo test
Motivo d’esecuzione del test delle nuove diagnosi di HIV nel 2012

Perché si fa il test per l’HIV? La stragrande maggioranza degli individui non lo fa per screening, non lo fa a seguito di rapporti sessuali non protetti, non lo fa per accidentali contatti con il sangue ma, purtroppo, lo fa quando ha già sviluppato i sintomi di HIV-correlati. In linea con quanto precedentemente detto, i sieropositivi molto spesso non sanno di esserlo. Ciò aumenta la probabilità di contagio spiegandoci, per giunta, il motivo per cui l’incidenza dei nuovi casi è correlata a rapporti sessuali non protetti piuttosto che ai vecchi metodi di contagio.

Tanto si fatto, tanto si deve ancora fare. La prima azione terapeutica è la prevenzione: in un paese con un SSN avanzato è indiscutibile che il punto di forza debba essere la diffusione nella popolazione dei giovani della “cultura del sesso sicuro”.
Fonte | (1)www.iss.it (2) www.iss.it

 

Leggi il Decalogo sulla prevenzione – E’ semplice, proteggiti. | http://wp.me/p50yx2-NR

Diagnosi di AIDS – Un delicato momento, ma sei tutelato! | http://wp.me/p50yx2-Oc

Terapia HAART – Un cocktail farmacologico che dà speranza. | http://wp.me/p50yx2-NX

Domenico Posa
Amministratore e Facebook Manager | Frequento Scuola di Medicina e Chirurgia presso l'Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro." Fondatore ed ideatore del progetto "La medicina in uno scatto" | email - domenico.posa@gmail.com

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