Cosa cambierebbe se parlassimo di immigrazione mettendoci dalla parte dei migranti? Cosa implicherebbe il prendere in considerazione la difficile condizione psichica  di persone che hanno preso la difficile scelta di emigrare?

“L’immigrazione è la forma più sincera di adulazione”

Charles Caleb Colton

Quando si parla di immigrazione lo si fa in tutte le salse, ma solo raramente si fa cenno alla oggettiva necessità di garantire un’adeguata assistenza medico-sanitaria ai tanti stranieri (regolari e non) che ogni giorno scelgono il nostro paese come nuova casa. A prescindere da tutte le polemiche che possono insorgere in merito, è evidente queste persone scelgono il nostro paese tra tanti perché lo ritengono il più idoneo alle loro speranze e al loro desiderio di rivincita nei confronti di una vita che è stata in vario modo ingiusta: lo scelgono perché lo considerano un paese migliore. A torto o a ragione queste scelte hanno in pochi anni trasformato l’Italia in un paese multiculturale, nel quale bisogna quindi rimettere in discussione l’intera statistica ed epidemiologia medica.

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È facile comprendere questo concetto se si pensa all’intero capitolo malattie infettive: parassitosi a noi fino a ieri sconosciute, tubercolosi, malaria, AIDS tornano (o in alcuni casi cominciano) a rappresentare un vero problema per il nostro sistema sanitario. A queste si aggiungono malattie di facile prevenzione per noi occidentali, ma spesso trascurate nel paese di origine.

Da qualche anno però la S.I.P. (Società Italiana di Psichiatria) invita a porre l’attenzione ANCHE sui problemi psichiatrici dei migranti.  Bisogna tener conto del fatto che questi individui molto spesso si allontanano dal paese di origine in seguito a eventi traumatici importanti, giungono da paesi in guerra o in cui la violenza è poco controllata. Anche una volta giunti nel nostro paese non vivono poi una condizione di benessere psichico: la scarsa rete sociale in cui sono coinvolti e il bassissimo reddito sono sicuramente condizioni predisponenti. Se aggiungiamo il fatto di dover subire episodi di razzismo più o meno esplicito, nonché di violenza fisica (soprattutto per le donne) e una totale alienazione culturale, possiamo capire quanto sia facile che la mente vacilli e diventi vittima di problemi psichiatrici di vario grado.

Depressione, schizofrenia e disturbi psichiatrici minori sono quindi sempre più comuni nelle comunità migranti e sono sicuramente un fenomeno cui si deve far fronte con misure specifiche e mirate, che raggiungano il singolo individuo anche se isolato dalla società e che si mettano a sua disposizione per perseguire non solo il suo benessere, me quello dell’intera comunità che lo accoglie.

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È nata così l’etnopsichiatria, disciplina medica che mira all’integrazione mentale e culturale del migrante, che tiene conto della sua differente formazione, dei suoi codici etici e morali e soprattutto delle sue motivazioni di espatrio. Che si voglia essere disposti o meno alla multiculturalità, non bisogna comunque trascurare la salute di ogni essere umano e bisogna tutelarla in ogni senso! Se la medicina di urgenza, l’ostetricia e l’infettivologia si sono sempre fatti carico di stranieri senza nome che ne hanno richiesto i servizi, oggi anche la psichiatria deve essere pronta a mettersi a disposizione di questi particolari pazienti, che richiedono trattamenti e cure particolari e mirati. Allo stesso modo una psichiatria preventiva deve cercare di creare le condizioni psicosociali per una buona integrazione sin dalle prime fasi della nuova esperienza.

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